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Roche maintained, "I, therefore, beg to advise you that all troops from Canada for the war have gone voluntarily Later in the war, a U. But after the Armistice, a renewed call was aimed at returning servicemen. Pitched at soldiers who had returned home to find original jobs were gone or no longer attractive, the article went on to pronounce, "farm life will doubtless appeal to them By following the pursuit of agriculture the returned soldier will continue the cause he so greatly advanced when fighting on the field of battle," referring to the war-shattered nations of Europe that now needed sustenance.
Many soldiers coming home from the horrors of war would have been drawn to the idea of rural tranquility. Canada West oriented itself entirely and wholeheartedly to the rural life—although clearly immigration opportunities would have existed in growing urban centres such as Winnipeg, Saskatoon, and Calgary.
But what Canada needed for its plains was farmers, not more business or industrial workers.
Canadian Immigration Acts and Legislation | Pier 21
Of city life, the issue wryly observed, "It is the same old grind and the same old routine, with nearly every part of the monthly salary going to present-day maintenance. With an equal loyalty to his daily pursuits, and but a part of the energy displayed in the city, he could reap all the advantages of life with its personal and financial independence by becoming a producer—a farm owner.
In order to discourage settlers from heading to urban centres, the rural life had to be convincingly portrayed as more desirable, even idealized. Covers varied more than the articles, and allowed more room for subjectivity. This was visually reinforced through cover illustrations. She explains why. There was certainly more detail inside the publication, and I doubt that anyone decided to immigrate based on one of these covers, but they make a strong first impression. Detre notes that the earlier covers up to around were aimed at men who would be establishing homesteads, but it soon became clear to immigration officials that incoming males were vastly outnumbering females, threatening population growth and the farm family ideal.
While the inside material continued to speak to the needs and concerns of men, the cover was clearly designed to appeal to both genders. It shows a fashionably dressed housewife outside her new farmhouse beckoning to her husband harvesting in the fields. Such an image supported the impression that men could concentrate on fieldwork while women took care of the domestic chores. For women, Detre says, this image has a similar, but subtly different message, as they would identify with the woman in the illustration and feel assured that there was a place for them in farming society.
Indeed, women were specifically targeted in the recruitment campaigns— brochures and documents were created and distributed to sell the appeal of farm life solely to women. The hope was, of course, that they would quickly marry. Detre maintains that, "if all the promises came true, women who immigrated to the Canadian West couldlook forward to lives of leisure, spending a small portion of their day on housework and the majority of their time socializing and relaxing. Subsequent covers emphasized happy children at play, often in the fields.
In reality, most children toiled with farm chores, but the cover images assured newcomers that farms were so prosperous that farmhands could be employed to do the fieldwork. Canada West was published annually from , as terms for prairie provincehood namely, Alberta and Saskatchewan were heating up, to ; it was distributed in the United States and Great Britain. For instance, she says, the best estimates claim that as many as one million Americans came to Canada during this period, many of them returning Canadians.
But many others returned to the United States at a later point. The European campaign was probably more successful in retaining immigrants, but not all were those the government had envisioned. Detre points out that it was a period of tremendous immigration from Europe, particularly the province of Galicia in Austria-Hungary and Ukraine. I believe that the importance of this campaign is that it illustrates the ideal society as envisioned by the white male elite in Ottawa. Detre feels that the federal government "attempted unsuccessfully to engineer a society that reflected their values.
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- Specific Resources for Teaching Canadian History | The History Education Network.
- Canada in the Frame – UCL Press.
Who can say how the Prairie provinces, or Canada in general, would be different today had they been more successful? However, promotional campaigns proclaimed who Canadians really wanted. Government recruited immigrants from all over Europe, yet at the same time it tried to curtail the ethnic diversity in a quest for "desirable immigrants. Ethnic hierarchies existed, placing British and American immigrants at the top of the ladder, though there was also division over which of the two groups was most preferable.
Some favoured the English, wanting to preserve British institutions and promote an imperial Canadian society, while others felt that Americans would have better farming skills, fearing that urban Englishmen were lazy. Still, British and Americans were consistently the most popular immigrants.
Next, northern Europeans—Scandinavians and Germans—were considered acceptable, followed by eastern Europeans. Southern Europeans were not considered good agriculturalists, but the groups who fared worst were Jews, Asians, and African Americans, showing that culturally embracing attitudes had a long way to go.
With a mandate to increase immigration, oversee land settlement, and to build "a nation of good farmers," Sifton shaped immigration policy in the first decade of the s with his mission to populate the Prairies. His strategy was to 1 eliminate roadblocks to settler land grants, 2 offer bonuses to transportation company recruiters, 3 promote and organize tours of the West for journalists, 4 target Britain, Europe, and the United States with brochures to attract farmers in need of land.
These efforts were extremely effective: close to two million people immigrated to Canada during the "Laurier boom," more than half of whom were from Britain. Close on their heels were Americans, followed by a large influx of Ukrainians, Doukhobors, and other groups from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sifton did not want to attract more city dwellers, feeling it would only exacerbate urban poverty and unemployment. He also instructed immigration agents to discourage the immigration of Jews, Italians, Asians, African Americans, and urban Englishmen.
Instead, Sifton wanted immigration agents to recruit candidates whom he felt would be more likely to endure hardships and remain in Canada through difficult times, such as eastern and central Europeans. When pressed, he was prepared to admit immigrants from places other than Britain and America. The amount you need to pay depends on if you are taking classes full time or part time, and if you are on campus or not. The table below assumes you are on campus full-time. Tuition information is accurate for the current academic year and does not include student fees.
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